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B102 |The 7 Arts| Sculpture

(This is simply a reminder to myself, to include this section in my forthcoming website:

It will be rather different on my new website!)

A chronological list of the Art Movements and some of the most significant Sculptors of their eras (noting that some sculptors were also virtuoso Painters) is included below.

Dates, (BCE) —(Movement)—————————–[Principal Sculptors]

The Lower Paleolithic Age, c. 2.5m -200,000 BCE (2500 ka – 200 ka)

[ka (for kilo annum) – is a unit of time equal to one thousand, or 103, years, also known as a millennium in anthropology.] ———————————————

c.500,000————-(Engraved Shell Art)—————-Homo Erectus———————

The Middle Paleolithic Age, c. 300,000 BCE30,000 BCE (300 ka – 30 ka)

The beginning of Sculpture, c.75,000 BCE —————————————-

c.75,000 BCE——-(Rock Sculpture)———-(Blombos Ocre [stone] Plaque, engraved triangular pattern)——-Homo Sapiens, South Africa ———-

The Upper Paleolithic Age, c. 40,000 -10,000 BCE (40 ka – 10 ka)

c.30,000 BCE——-(Ivory Sculpture)———-(Lion Human)——-Homo Sapiens, Germany —————————————————————————————————–

One of the oldest sculptures discovered to date is an ivory statuette, dated approximately 30,000 BCE, from a cave at Hohlenstein-Stadel in Germany. Called Löwenmensch (German: Lion Human), it is about 12” tall and depicts a human figure with a feline face. This period of art history predates the invention of writing as we know it today, and therefore finds are referred to as prehistoric — literally pre-history — as history is defined through written accounts.

c.28,000 BCE – 25,000 BCE——-(Limestone Sculpture)———-(Venus of Willendorf)——-Homo Sapiens, Austria ———————————————————

The Venus of Willendorf, c. 28,000 BCE – 25,000 BCE, found in Austria, is a small figurine of about 10 cm height carved out of limestone. The exaggeration of her anatomy suggests she may have been used as a fertility symbol. She has no facial features —only a mass of curly hair — or perhaps a hat woven of natural materials. The exaggerated body and lack of features suggests this is not a sculpture of a specific woman, but a symbol of women in general. —————————————————————————————————Similar sculptures, first discovered in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, are traditionally referred to in archaeology as Venus figurines, due to the belief that depictions of nude women with exaggerated sexual features represented an early fertility fetish, perhaps a mother goddess. —–

The beginning of Fine Art, c.30,000 BCE —————————————————-

c.35,000 BCE————(Rock Art)———–Homo Sapiens, ‘Chauvet’ Dwellers ——

The Chauvet-Pont-d’Arc Cave in the Ardèche department of southern France is a cave that contains some of the best-preserved figurative cave paintings in the world, as well as other evidence of Upper Paleolithic life. It is located near the commune of Vallon-Pont-d’Arc on a limestone cliff above the former bed of the Ardèche river, in the Gorges de l’Ardèche. ——————Discovered on December 18, 1994, it is considered one of the world’s most significant prehistoric art sites. The cave was first explored by a group of three speleologists: Eliette Brunel-Deschamps, Christian Hillaire, and Jean-Marie Chauvet, lastly for whom it was named, six months after an aperture now known as “Le Trou de Baba” (“Baba’s Hole”) was discovered by Michel Rosa (Baba). At a later date the group returned to the cave. Another member of this group, Michel Chabaud, along with two others, travelled further into the cave and discovered the Gallery of the Lions, the End Chamber. Chauvet has his own detailed account of the discovery. In addition to the paintings and other human evidence, they also discovered fossilised remains, prints, and markings from a variety of animals, some of which are now extinct. ——————————————————Further study by French archaeologist Jean Clottes has revealed much about the site. The dates have been a matter of dispute but a study published in 2012 supports placing the art in the Aurignacian period, approximately 32,000–30,000 years BP*. A study published in 2016 using additional 88 radiocarbon dates showed two periods of habitation (and art), one 37,000 to 33,500 years ago and the second from 31,000 to 28,000 years ago, with most of the black drawings dating to the earlier period. —————-[BP* is Before Present years, an archaeological timescale which uses 1st January 1950 as the commencement date (epoch) of an age scale for the purpose of radio carbon dating an object.] —————————————————

c.28,000 BCE —————(Rock Art)——–Homo Sapiens, Australian Aborigines

Australian indigenous art represents the oldest unbroken tradition of Homo Sapiens art in the world. There are more than 100,000 recorded rock art sites in Australia. ————————————————————————————The oldest firmly dated rock-art painting in Australia is a charcoal drawing on a rock fragment found during the excavation at Nawarla Gabarnmang in the Northern Territory. Dated at 28,000 years, it is one of the oldest known pieces of rock art on Earth with a confirmed date. The site is considered to have one of the most extensive collections of rock art in the world and is almost as ancient as Chauvet cave art – the earliest known art in Europe, and probably the world. ——————————————————————————

c.17,000 BCE————-(Rock Art)————–Homo Sapiens, Lascaux Dwellers —

Lascaux is the setting of a complex of caves near the village of Montignac, in the department of Dordogne in southwestern France. Over 600 parietal wall paintings cover the interior walls and ceilings of the cave. The paintings represent primarily large animals, typical local and contemporary fauna that correspond with the fossil record of the Upper Paleolithic time. The drawings are the combined effort of many generations, and with continued debate, the age of the paintings is estimated at around 17,000 years BCE., the Upper Paleolithic Age. —————-

Cradles of Civilisation, c.12,000 BCE – 30 BCE ——————————————–The formerly nomadic Natufian culture in the Levant became sedentary as early as c.12,000 BCE, and by c.10,000 BCE it had evolved into an agricultural society. ———————————————————————————-An abundance of water was vital in the production of a stable food supply, as were favourable conditions for hunting, fishing and gathering resources such as cereals. ——————————————————————————————-The creation of such a wide spectrum economy led to the development of permanent villages. ————————————————————————————-The first cities to house several tens of thousands of inhabitants were Memphis and Uruk, by about 3100 BCE. ——————————————————- A civilised way of life is directly linked to conditions resulting from the practice of intensive agriculture. ——————————————————————In the absence of written documents the rise of civilisations has been archaeologically charted from the development of formal institutions and material culture. ——————————————————————————————The traditional theory that civilisation began in in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East, (a boomerang shaped area, anti-clockwise from Mesopotamia, with its two primary rivers, the Tigris and Euphrates, North to Assyria, and then South to Phoenicia along the Eastern Mediterranean coastal region), c. 3500 BCE – 500BCE, may be chronologically correct, but scholars believe that several parallel civilisations were developed entirely independently to that of the Fertile Crescent, rather than as a result of its civilsation spreading from one region to another. ————————————————————————-Such nascent civilisations include the Norte Chico region of coastal Peru, c.3700 BCE – c.1800 BCE, The Indus Valley in South Asia, c.3300 BCE – c.1900 BCE, The Egyptian dynasty on the banks of The Nile, c. 3150 BCE – 30 BCE, The Chinese Xia dynasty in the Yellow River and Yangtze River region, c.1600 BCE – 1046 BCE, and the Maya civilisation in Mesoamerica (modern day Yucatan, Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador.), c.2600 BCE – 900 CE. ————————-

The Mesolithic Age, c.10,000 – 4,000 BCE ——————————————————-

The Mesolithic period is a transitional era between the ice-affected hunter-gatherer culture of the Upper Paleolithic, and the farming culture of the Neolithic. The greater the effect of the retreating ice on the environment of a region, the longer the Mesolithic era lasted. So, in areas with no ice (eg. the Middle East), people transitioned quite rapidly from hunting/gathering to agriculture. ———————————————————————————————The term “Mesolithic” is no longer used to denote a worldwide period in relation to European cultural evolution. Instead, it describes only the situation in northwestern Europe – Scandinavia, Britain, France, Netherlands, Denmark, Germany – and central Europe. ——————————-

The ‘Very Late’ Upper Paleolithic, ‘Non-Neolithic Age’, Non-European period, c.10,000 – 4,000 BCE ————————————————————————————–

c.9,500—————(Rock Art)—————————–Argentina ——————————

c.9,000 – 7,000—-(Rock Art)—————————–India ————————————–

c.8,000—————(Rock Art)—————————–Algeria; South Africa ————–

The Neolithic Age, c. 8,000/4,000 – 2000 BCE —————————————————

The Neolithic era [literally New Stone Age] saw a fundamental change in lifestyle throughout the world. The primitive semi-nomadic style of hunting and gathering food, gave way to a much more settled form of existence, based on farming and rearing of domesticated animals. Neolithic culture was characterized by stone tools shaped by polishing or grinding, and farming (staple crops: wheat, barley and rice; domesticated animals: sheep, goats, pigs and cattle), and led directly to a growth in crafts like pottery and weaving.——————————————————————————————————-In general, the more settled and better-resourced the region, the more art it produces. This was typified by Neolithic art which branched out in several different directions. Although mostly remaining essentially functional in nature, there was a greater focus on ornamentation and decoration. ————————————————————————————————-With larger settlement in villages and other small communities, rock painting begins to be replaced by more portable art. ———————————–In Asia Minor (modern Turkey) finds have included beautiful murals (including the world’s first landscape painting), dating from c. 6,100 BCE. —

Early Antiquity, c.4500 BCE – 800 BCE ———————————————————

The Bronze Age, in Europe & The Middle East, c. 3,000 – 1,200 BCE —————–

|Egyptian Sculpture|, (c.2920 – 332 BCE)

First Dynasty of Egypt (2920-2770 BCE) to 31st Dynasty (343-332 BCE) ——-

Egyptian art includes the emergence of Egyptian architecture, sculpture, metallurgy, and encaustic painting (a mixed media technique that involves using heated beeswax to which coloured pigments have been added. The liquid/paste is then applied to a surface — usually prepared wood, (or, in the modern age, canvas). ——————————————————————————Rules of Painting: Egyptian civilization was highly religious. Most Egyptian artworks involve the depiction of many gods and goddesses – of whom the Pharaoh was one. —————————————————————————————-Egyptian respect for order and conservative values led to the establishment of complex rules for how both Gods and humans could be represented by artists. ———————————————————————————————————In figure painting, the sizes of figures were calculated purely by reference to the person’s social status, rather than by the normal artistic rules of linear perspective. ———————————————————————————– The same formula for painting the human figure was used over hundreds if not thousands of years. Head and legs always in profile; eyes and upper body viewed from the front. ——————————————————————–For Egyptian sculpture relating to statues, the rules stated that male statues should be darker than female ones. When seated, the subject’s hands should be on knees. Gods were also depicted according to their position in the hierarchy of deities, and always in the same guise. For instance, Horus (the sky god) was always represented with a falcon’s head, and Anubis (the god of funeral rites) was always depicted with a jackal’s head. —————————

The Great Sphinx, Gizeh, Egypt, 4th Dynasty, c. 2520-2494 BCE, is a massive sandstone funerary sculpture, approx. 65’ high and 240’ long. ———————-

The sculptor Thutmose, also known as “The King’s Favourite and Master of Works, the Sculptor Thutmose” was an Egyptian sculptor, c. 1350 BCE, who was seemingly the official court sculptor of the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten in the latter part of his reign. His sculpture workshop was discovered by a German archaeologist in 1912, and within it was the polychrome bust of Nefertiti, apparently a master study for others to copy. Nefertiti (c. 1370 – c. 1330 BCE) was a queen of the 18th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt, the Great Royal Wife of Pharaoh Akhenaten. Nefertiti and her husband were known for their monotheistic religious revolution, in which they worshipped one god only, Aten, the sun disc. With her husband, she reigned at a time that was arguably the wealthiest period of Ancient Egyptian history. —————————————————————————————— The bust of Nefertiti is 48 centimetres tall and weighs about 20 kilograms. It is made of a limestone core covered with painted stucco layers. The face is completely symmetrical and almost intact, but the left eye lacks the inlay present in the right. The pupil of the right eye is of inserted quartz with black paint and is fixed with beeswax. The background of the eye-socket is unadorned limestone.———————————————————————————–Other sculptors of the Amarna Period also known by name, are Bek, the first chief royal sculptor during the reign of Pharaoh Akhenaten, and Yuti, the sculptor of Queen Tiye. ——————————————————————————–A stela (stele), now in Berlin, shows Bek with his wife Taheret. This is possibly the first self-portrait in history. The inscription of this stela also mentions Bek as being ‘taught‘ by Akhenaten. ———————————————-

The Iron Age, in Europe, c.1500 BCE – 200 BCE ———————————————–

This age is characterized by the processing of iron ore to produce iron tools and weapons.

Elaborate representations of females in the sculpture of the ancient Near East are images of divine and cult figures whose association with certain aspects of life made them essential to the welfare of humanity. ——————– Fertility, procreation, and the growth of crops and livestock were among the basic concepts identified with female divinities. Representations of nude females in clay, stone, and metal are the simplest and most obvious expression of these concepts, and such figures appear throughout antiquity in many regions. ——————————————————————————————A notable example of one such female figure, in clay, c. 1000 BCE, from the South Caspian region of north western Iran, is displayed at the Museum of Metropolitan Art, New York.

In northern Europe, Hallstatt and then La Tene styles of Celtic art flourished, while around the Mediterranean there emerged the great schools of Greek art and Persian art. ———————————————————

The La Tène culture developed and flowered during the late Iron Age (from about 450 BCE to the Roma conquest in the 1st century BCE), succeeding the early Iron Age Hallstatt culture without any definite cultural break. ———————————————————————————————Centred on ancient Gaul, Iron Age culture became very widespread, and encompassed a wide range of local differences. It is often distinguished from the earlier Neolithic culture by the La Tène style of Celtic art, which is noted for its curving, swirly decoration, especially in metalwork. —————–

The Cradle of Western Civilisation, c.500 BCE – 400 BCE —————————-

This is the predominant period of Greco-Roman and Persian arts and antiquities. ————————————————————————————————–

|Greek Art|, (c.650 – 27 BCE)

Ancient Greek art is unique among that of other ancient cultures for its development of naturalistic but idealized depictions of the human body, focussing in the main on nude male figures. The rate of stylistic development between about 750 and 300 BC was remarkable by ancient standards, and in surviving works is best seen in sculpture. There were important innovations in painting, which have to be essentially reconstructed due to the lack of original survivals of quality, other than in the specific field of painted pottery.

The practice of fine art and sculpture in ancient Greece evolved in three basic periods:-

• Archaic Period (c.650 – 480 BCE) —————————————————————This was a period of gradual experimentation. ——————————————–
• Classical Period (c.480-323 BCE) —————————————————————This was the development and establishment of mainland Greek power and artistic domination. ————————————————————————————-The most famous Greek artists were Polygnotos, noted for his wall murals, and Apollodoros, the originator of chiaroscuro. —————————————-The development of realistic technique is credited to Zeuxis and Parrhasius.
• Hellenistic Period (c.323-27 BCE) ————————————————————– This began with the death of Alexander the Great, and was the creation of Greek-style art throughout the whole region, as established by Alexander. All Greek-controlled lands gradually became centres and colonies of Greek culture. The period also includes the decline and fall of Greece and the rise of Rome. It ends with the complete Roman conquest of the entire Mediterranean basin. ———————————————————————————-Sadly, apart from pottery, nearly all original art from Greek Antiquity: sculpture, mural & panel paintings, mosaics, and decorative art, has been lost. Archaeologists are almost entirely dependent upon copies of Greek art by Roman artists, and a few written accounts. ———————————————-

|Persian Art| The first Persian Empire, founded by Cyrus the Great around 550 BCE, became one of the largest empires in history, stretching from Europe’s Balkan Peninsula in the West to India’s Indus Valley in the East. This Iron Age dynasty, sometimes called the Achaemenid Empire, was a global hub of culture, religion, science, art and technology for more than 200 years. —————————————————————————————————-The Persians dominated Mesopotamia from 612 BCE to 330 BCE. Approximately 520 BCE, Darius I took over the throne of Persia. He did many great things for the Persian Empire, including making Persepolis the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenian Empire. Other kings later developed Persepolis further, though most of the credit was given to Darius I. It contained many great monuments and temples. Unfortunately, the ceremonial capital was reduced to columns, stairways, and doorjambs of the great palace of Persepolis after it was burned to the ground by the invading armies of the Greeks, led by Alexander the Great, in 330 BCE. ——–

|Roman Art|

Many examples of even the most famous Greek sculptures, such as the Apollo Belvedere and Barberini Faun, are known only from Roman Imperial or Hellenistic copies. Historically art scholars viewed this imitation as an indication of a narrowness of Roman artistic imagination, but by the late 20th century Roman art began to be re-evaluated on its own terms: some impressions of the nature of Greek sculpture may in fact be based on Roman artistry.

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The Roman Kingdom (Roman monarchy), c.753 – 509 B.C.E., the earliest period of Roman history, began as a group of settlements around the Palatine Hill along the river Tiber in central Italy, and ended with the overthrow of the kings of Rome and the establishment of the Roman Republic c.509 B.C.E. ————————————————————————————The accounts of this period are written during the subsequent Republic and then Empire periods, and are based only on oral legends. ———————The Roman Republic, c.509 – 27 B.C.E., was the era of classical Roman civilization. ————————————————————————————————– During this period Rome’s control expanded from the city’s immediate surroundings to hegemony over the entire Mediterranean area. ——————The Roman Empire, 27 B.C.E. – 286 C.E., with Rome as its sole capital, was rooted in Julius Caesar’s adopted son Octavian’s victory over rivals Mark Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium in 31 B.C.E. The next year Octavian conquered Ptolemaic Egypt, ending the Hellenistic period that had begun with Alexander The Great of Macedon in the 4th century B.C.E. ———By 27 B.C.E., Octavian’s power was unassailable. At this point the Roman Senate formally made him the first Roman emperor, and gave him the additional name of Augustus. ———————————————————————–He reigned as the first Roman Emperor until his death, aged 75, in 14 C.E. Pax Romana, a relatively peaceful and stable period, is traditionally dated as commencing from the accession of Caesar Augustus, founder of the Roman principate, in 27 BCE and concluding in 180 C.E. with the death of Marcus Aurelius, the last of the good emperors. —————————————-Sculpture was considered as the highest form of art by Romans, although figure painting was also highly regarded. A very large body of sculpture has survived from about 100 B.C.E. onwards, though very little from before, but hardly any painting remains, and probably nothing that a contemporary would have considered to be of the highest quality. ————————————-The most recent analysis has concluded that Roman art is a highly creative pastiche relying heavily on Greek models but also encompassing Etruscan, native Italic, and Egyptian visual culture. —————————————————–

In 476 C.E. Odoacre deposed the last emperor in Italy, precipitating the Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called the Fall of the Roman Empire or the Fall of Rome). The loss of political unity and military control was never regained. ————————————————————————————-

Late Antiquity, c.224 C.E. – 651 C.E. ————————————————————-

This relatively recently defined artistic period, emphasizes the cultural continuities throughout and beyond the gradual political and military collapse of the Western Roman Empire. ——————————————————-

The Eastern Roman Empire, also known as The Byzantine Empire or Byzantium was centred in Constantinople (present day Istanbul). ————–Constantine The Great, 306 C.E. to 337, also known as Constantine I, was was the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity, albeit on his deathbed. —————————————————————————————————-He built a new imperial residence at Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople after himself. —————————————————————–It subsequently became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire for more than a thousand years, and was later referred to as being the Byzantine Empire by modern historians. ———————————————————————-The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was built on Constantine’s orders at the purported site of Jesus’ tomb in Jerusalem, and became the holiest place in Christendom. ——————————————————————————————

The Middle Ages or  Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century, C.E. It began with the Fall of Rome in 476 C.E. and continued until about 1500 C.E. However for Europe as a whole, there is no universally agreed upon end date. ———————————————————————————Depending on the context, events such as the conquest of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453, Christopher Columbus’ first voyage to the Americas in 1492, or the Protestant Reformation in 1517 are sometimes used. English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period. For Spain, dates commonly used are the death of King Ferdinand II in 1516, the death of Queen Isabella I in 1504, or the conquest of Grenada in 1492. —————————————————————–

The Dark Ages is an historical periodisation traditionally referring to the Middle Ages (c. 5th–15th century C.E.) that asserts that a demographic, cultural, and economic deterioration occurred in Western Europe following the decline of the Roman Empire. —————————————————————-

Monumental Sculpture is used to describe one of three types of sculpture:-

• All large sculptures (possibly c.3000 BCE onwards, certainly to include The Great Sphinx, Gizeh, Egypt, 4th Dynasty, c. 2520-2494 BCE). ——————Human figures that are perhaps half life-size or above would usually be considered monumental in this sense by art historians, although in contemporary art a rather larger overall scale is implied. Monumental sculpture is therefore distinguished from small portable figurines, small as metal or ivory reliefs, diptychs, triptychs and the like.
• Functional architectural sculptures (possibly c.480 BCE onwards?). This is when a sculpture is used to create or form part of a monument of some sort, and therefore for examples, capitals and reliefs attached to buildings will be included, even if small in size. Other typical functions of monuments are as grave markers, tomb monuments or memorials, and expressions of the power of a ruler or community, to which churches and religious statues are conventionally added, although in some contexts monumental sculpture may specifically mean just funerary sculpture for church monuments. ————————————————————————————————
• Grand, noble, elevated in idea, simple in conception, without any excess of virtuosity, and having something of the enduring, stable, and timeless nature of great sculpture, and not necessarily synonymous with large. (possibly c.3000 BCE onwards ?????) —————————————–

Stele, (Stela) c.3000 BCE – present day ———————————————————

stele, sometime known as a stela (in Latin), is a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, often erected in the ancient world as a monument, and is a tradition that continues to this day. —————————— The surface of the stele often has text, ornamentation, or both. These may be inscribed, carved in relief, or painted. —————————————————-

The most famous and informative stele is the Rosetta Stone, c 196 BCE. This is inscribed with three versions of a decree issued in Memphis, Egypt in 196 BCE during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy V, Epiphanes. The top and middle texts are in Ancient Egyptian, using hieroglyphic and Demotic scripts respectively, while the bottom is in Ancient Greek. The decree has only minor differences between the three versions, making the Rosetta Stone key to deciphering Egyptian hieroglyphs. ——————————-

Dates, (C.E.)—(Movement)—————————–[Principal Sculptors] —————

285-650 ———|Late Antiquity|———————-|???|

313-1453 ——-|Byzantine Sculpture|————————|??? Little sculpture was produced during the Byzantine era|. ————————–

500-1100 ——-|Pre-Romanesque Art|————?

1000-1150 —–|Romanesque Art|——————?

1150-1490 —-|Gothic Art|———————-[Giotto, 1267-1337, painter]

1300-1500 —-|Renaissance Humanism|

——————–(Early Renaissance)—–[Donatello, 1386-1466, sculptor] ————

——————————————————-[Jan van Eyck, 1390-1441, painter]

1400-1600 —-(Italian Renaissance)——–[Bellini, 1430-1513]

————————————————————[Sandro Botticelli, 1445-1510]

————————————————————[Leonardo da Vinci, 1452-1519]

———————(Late Gothic)——————-[Hans Holbein the Elder, 1460-1524]

————-(German & High Renaissance)—–[Albrecht Dürer, 1471-1528]

————-(Northern & Dutch/Flemish Renaissance)—————————————————————————————————-[Hieronymus Bosch, 1474-1516]

——————-(Italian Renaissance)——-[Michelangelo, 1475-1564]

——————–(High Renaissance)———-[Raphael, 1483-1522]

———–(Northern Renaissance)——–[Hans Holbein the Younger, 1497-1543]

——— |1517-1689 Protestant Reformation, The Reformation)| ———-

——— |1520-1600, Mannerism| ——— |Mannerism, also known as Late Renaissance, is a European Art style that became prevalent towards the later part of the Italian High Renaissance. It is descriptive of the overuse of a distinctive style in a particular Art form, such as Painting, Literature, Music or Architecture. By about 1600 it had been replaced by Rococo.|

——————-(Mannerism/Late Renaissance/Rococo/Venetian Painting)——————————————————————-[(Jacopo) Tintoretto, 1518-1594]———–

——————–(Northern/Dutch & Flemish Renaissance)——————————————————————————————-[Pieter Bruegel the Elder, 1525-1569]—

——————–(Mannerism/Spanish Renaissance/Renaissance)———————————————————————————-[El Greco, 1541-1614]————————–

——— |(1538, The discovery of Herculaneum)| ——————————————

——— |(1543 – 1687, The Scientific Revolution | ———— This begins with the publication of Nicolas Copernicus’ De revolutionibus orbium coelestium [On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres] in 1543, which signals the beginning of modern science. Developments in mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology (including human anatomy) and astronomy transformed society’s views about nature. The completion of The Scientific Revolution is deemed to be the 1687 publication of Isaac Newton’s Principia Mathematica in which he formulates the laws of motion and universal gravitation| ———

——— |1545-1648 Counter-Reformation/Catholic Reformation/Catholic Revival)| —————————————————————————————————-

————(Northern Renaissance)———————————————————————————————————————[Pieter Bruegel the Younger, 1564-1636]——-

——— |1592, The discovery of Pompeii)| ———

——— |1600 – 1740, Baroque| ——— |Baroque was encouraged by the Catholic Church as a means of countering the simplicity and austerity of Protestant Art, Architecture & Music |———————————————————-

——— (Baroque/Renaissance)—–[(Michelangelo) Caravaggio, 1571-1610]——

———-(Flemish Baroque)———–[(Sir Peter Paul) Rubens, 1577-1640]———————–|Rubens immensely popular style emphasised movement, colour and sensuality, as opposed to the immediate, dramatic artistic style promoted in the Counter Reformation|——————————————————-

——— |1600 – 1740, Classicism| ——— |Classicism refers to a high regard for ancient Greek or Roman principles and style in Art, Architecture and Literature, generally associated with harmony and restraint. This entails adherence to recognised standards of form and craftsmanship. The discoveries of Herculaneum and Pompeii fueled the interest in Classicism and led to the establishment of formal archaeology.|

———(Baroque/Classicism)—————–[(Nicolas) Poussin, 1594-1665]————-

———(Baroque)———————————-[(Diego) Valázquez, 1599-1660]———–

——— |16001700, Dutch Golden Age Painting| ——— |Beginning in the midst of the Eighty Years War for Dutch Independence, 1568-1648, and continuing for the whole of the 17th Century, the Dutch Golden Age was a particularly distinctive period for Dutch Painters. Whilst elements of the Baroque Art in vogue throughout Europe are visible in Dutch painting in this turbulent time, mostly the idealisation and love of splendour of Baroque work is subservient to the detailed realism of earlier Netherlandish painting. It was a period of complete change, from old monarchist and Catholic traditions, in which the Dutch reinvented themselves as a more secular society. In Art distinctive genres of paintings proliferated, with a majority of Artists focusing on one specific genre for the whole of their careers. By the late 1620’s it was most common for painters to spend the majority of their careers painting exclusively portraits, genre scenes, landscapes, seascapes and ships, or still lifes. This was a very significant development in Western European painting.|——————————————

———(Baroque, Dutch Golden Age)———————————————————————————————[Rembrandt (Harmenspoon van Rijn), 1599-1660]——————–|In contrast to his fellow Dutch Artists, Rembrandt did not limit his work to one particular genre. He is also recognised for his transformation of the etching process in printmaking, from a relatively new technique into a true Art form. Rembrandt never left the Netherlands but was very influenced by the work of Italian Masters through his Dutch peers who had studied in Italy. Few of his original Artworks left the Dutch Republic in his lifetime, but his prints were distributed throughout Europe and his reputation as a great artist was established in his lifetime.|

———(Baroque, Dutch Golden Age)—–[Johannes Vermeer, 1632-1675] —————–|Johannes specialised in domestic interior scenes of middle class life.|

———-|1723 – 1759,Rococo / Late Baroque flourished in France | ————-

———(Rococo)—–[Jean-Antoine Watteau, 1684-1721] ———————————–

——— |17501850, The Grand Manner| ——————- In a series of lectures presented at the Royal Academy from 1769 to 1790 Sir Joshua Reynolds contended that painters should perceive their subjects through generalisation and idealisation, rather than by careful copy of nature. He describes the cartoons of the apostles by Raphael being drawn ‘with great nobleness.’|

———(Grand Manner, Classicism, High Renaissance )—————————————————————————-[Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1721-1792] ————————-

——— |17501850, Neoclassicism| ——————————————————————–Johann Joachim Wincklemann, 1717-1768, a German Art historian and the founder of modern Archeology, was the decisive influence in the founding of the Neoclassical movement during the latter part of the 18th Century. As a pioneering Hellenist he was the first to distinguish between Greek, Greco Roman and Roman Art. He was also one of the first to separate Greek Art into periods and time classifications. Neoclassicism is a revival of classic antiquity styles and spirit, and was initially a reaction against the excesses of the preceding Rococo style of Art.|——————————————–

——— |17501790, British Landscape School| Thomas Gainsborough and Richard Wilson founded the British Landscape School. Despite being a brilliant portrait painter, Gainsborough much preferred landscape painting. Sometime after 1760 he wrote “I’m sick of Portraits and wish very much to take my Viol da Gamba and walk off to some sweet Village where I can paint Landskips [landscapes] and enjoy the fag End of Life in quietness and ease”|

——— |17601820/40, The Industrial Revolution| ——— |Also known as The First Industrial Revolution this was the transition to new manufacturing processes, principally in Europe and the USA, using mechanised power via steam and water, iron foundries and chemical factories, and creating an unprecedented increase in populations.|————–

——— |17901890, Romanticism| ——— |Romanticism emphasised emotion, individualism and spontaneity, and glorified the past and nature, preferring medieval rather than classical developments. In part it was a reaction to the Industrial Revolution. In about 1850 Realism was conceived as the polar opposite of Romanticism.|

———(Romanticism, Rococo)—–[Francisco Goya, 1746-1828] ————————

———(Romanticism)———[J.M.W. Turner, William Turner, 1775-1851] ———

———(Romanticism)———[John Constable, 1776-1837] ——————————–

———(Romanticism, Romanesque Art)——-[Eugène Delacroix, 1798-1863] —

——— |18001900, Orientalism| ——— |This is the imitation or dipiction of aspects of the Eastern World, usually done by Artist from the West. More specifically the Middle East was one of the specialisms of 19th Century Art.|

———(Neoclassicism, Orientalism)——————————————————————————————————–[Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, 1780-1867] ——-

——— |18162016, Academic Art| ——— |This is a style of painting (also sculpture & architecture) influenced by the French Académie des Beaux-Arts, initially in an attempt to synthesise the Neoclassicism and Romanticism styles.|

——— |18481872, Realism| ———|This was an artistic movement that emerged in France in the 1840s, around the 1848 Revolution. Realists rejected Romanticism, which had dominated French literature and art since the early 19th century. Realism revolted against the exotic subject matter and the exaggerated emotionalism and drama of the Romantic movement. Instead, it sought to portray real and typical contemporary people and situations with truth and accuracy, and not avoiding unpleasant or sordid aspects of life. The movement aimed to focus on unidealized subjects and events that were previously rejected in art work. Realist works depicted people of all classes in situations that arise in ordinary life, and often reflected the changes brought by the Industrial and Commercial Revolutions.|————————————————————————————————

———(Romanticism, Realism, Academic Art)——————————————————————————————[Gustave Corbet, 1819-1877] ——————————–

——— |18481910, Pre-Raphaelites| ——— | The seven-member Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt and his English artistic friends. This loose group aimed to revert to the abundant detail, intense colours and complex compositions of fourteenth Century Italian Art. It gained momentum and attracted more Artists in the latter part of the 19th Century.|

———(Orientalism, Pre-Raphaelite)——————————————————————————————[William Holman Hunt, 1827-1910] ———————————–

——— |18601970, Modern Art| ———|This groups the styles and philosophies of the art produced within this 110 year era. The tendency has been to move away from the narrative, characteristic of the traditional arts, towards abstraction, which represents much of modern art. Painters such as Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Paul Gaugin, Georges Seurat and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec were in the vanguard of Modern Art, closely followed by such artists as Henri Matisse and the pre-cubists such as Georges Braque, André Derain, Raoul Dufy, Jean Metzinger and Maurice de Vlaminck with their wild, multi-coloured, expressive landscapes and figure paintings that became known as Fauvism. ———————————————————————–At the beginning of the 20th century, c.1905, Pablo Picasso and George Braque collaborated and this resulted in their first Cubist paintings, c.1908-1909, being created, based on Cézanne’s idea that all depiction of nature can be reduced to three solids: cube, sphere and cone. (Note that a cylinder is a member of the set of cones.) ———————————————————————- More recent artistic works, post 1970’s is often called contemporary art or postmodern art.|—————————————————————————————-

———(Impressionism, Modern Art, Realism)———————————————————————————————–[Pierre-August Renoir, 1834-1919] ——————

———(Impressionism, Modern Art, Realism)———————————————————————————————–[Claude Monet, 1842-1917] —————————–

——— |18601970, Naïve Art & Primitive Art| ——–|Naïve Art is self-taught art, whereas Primitive Art is by a trained artist. Naïve Artists are aware of fine art conventions, but are unable to use them fully, or choose not to do so.|

——— |18601920, Arts and Crafts Movement| ——– |This term was first used by T. J. Cobden-Sanderson at a meeting of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society in 1887, but the principles and style on which it was based had been developing in England for more than 20 years. It was inspired by the ideas of architect Augustus Pugin, writer John Ruskin, and designer William Morris. In Scotland it is associated with key figures such as Charles Rennie Mackintosh. It became an international trend in the decorative and fine arts that developed earliest and most fully in the British Isles and subsequently spread across the British Empire and to the rest of Europe and America. The artistic influence of this Movement was in a similar vein to that of Art Nouveau, which began slightly later on mainland Europe.|

——— |18711914, La Belle Époque| ——– |This was a Golden Age period of French and Western history, retrospectively named the Belle Époque. It is conventionally dated from the end of theFranco-Prussian War in 1871 to the outbreak of the World War I in 1914. Occurring during the era of the French Third Republic (which began in 1870), it was a period characterised by optimism, regional peace, economic prosperity, colonial empires and technological, scientific, and cultural innovations. In this era of France’s cultural and artistic climate (particularly within Paris) the arts markedly flourished, with numerous masterpieces of literature, music, theatre, and visual art gaining extensive recognition. | —————————————————

——— |18721883, Impressionism| ——— |The 1872 Eduarde Manet work, Impression, soleil levant, became the source of this movement’s name. Artworks created by small, thin, visible brushstrokes were used to depict the changing qualities of light, relating to open composition of ordinary subject matter. Unusual visual angles and displays of movement were also characteristic of such creations.|——————————————————————

———(Impressionism)————-[Eduade Manet, 1834-1883] —————————

——— |18801915, Tonalism| ——— |This was an artistic style which emerged in the 1880’s when American Artists began to paint landscapes with an overall tone of coloured atmosphere or mist. Compositions were often dominated by dark, neutral hues such as grey, brown or blue.|————

———(Tonalism)————-[James McNeill Whistler, 1832-1903] ———————-

———(Impressionism, Post Impressionism)—–[Paul Cézanne, 1839-1906] —-

——— |1883, Les Vingt, (Les XX) | ——–|This was a group of twenty Belgian painters, designers and sculptors, formed in 1883 by the Brussels lawyer, publisher, and entrepreneur, Octave Maus . For ten years Les Vingt held an annual exhibition of their art. Each year twenty other international artists were also invited to participate in their exhibition. Painters invited included Camille Pissarro (1887, 1889, 1891), Claude Monet (1886, 1889), Georges Seurat (1887, 1889, 1891, 1892), Paul Gauguin (1889, 1891), Paul Cézanne (1890), and Vincent van Gogh (1890, the year of his suicide. Also 1891 retrospective). In 1893, the society of Les XX was transformed into “La Libre Esthétique“.|——————————————————-

——— |18861905, Synthetism| ——– |Synthetism’s aims were to synthesize three elements in a painting: the outward appearance of natural forms; the artist’s feelings about his/her subject; aesthetically pure considerations of line, colour and form.|——————————————————

——— |18861905, Post Impressionism| ——— |This was predominately a French movement, which emerged as a reaction to the Impressionists concern for the natural depiction of light and colour. It exists between the last Impressionist exhibition in 1888 and the birth of Fauvism in 1905. Broadly it emphasised abstract qualities or symbolic content. It encompasses Les Nabes, Neo-Impressionism, Symbolism, Cloisonnism, Pont-Aven School and Synthetism, in addition to some later Impressionists’ work.|——————————————————————————————————-

———(Post Impressionism, Naïve Art)——–[Henri Rousseau, 1844-1910] —–

———(Post Impressionism, Primitivism, Synthetism)———————————————————————————-[Paul Gauguin, 1848-1903] —————————–

———(Post Impressionism)—–[Vincent van Gogh, 1853-1890] ———————–

——-(Impressionism {of Landscapes} , The Grand Manner {of Portraiture})——————————————————–[John Singer Sargent, 1856-1925] ————-

——— |18841906, Neo-Impressionism| ——— |This was a ground-breaking Art Movement founded by George Seurat which used a pictorial technique in which colour pigments are not mixed on the pallet or directly on canvas, but instead are placed as small dots side by side. In the observer’s eye mixing of colours takes place at a suitable distance from the canvas, as an optical mixture. George Seurat studied writings on colour theory by French Chemists, E. Chevreul and C. Henry, and also American Physicist, O. Rood, and invented a new painting technique which he named Divisionism.|———————————————————————————————-

——— |18841906, Divisionism|——— |Also termed either Separation of Colour or Chromoluminarism, this was George Seurat’s invention which he believed achieved the maximum luminosity on a painting by creating the separation of colours into individual dots or patches of colour.|——————-

——— |18861906, Pointillism| ——— |This was a style developed by George Seurat concurrently with Divisionism which is defined specifically by the use of dots of paint, and does not necessarily focus on the separation of colours|—————————————————————————————————

———(Post Impressionism, Neo-Impressionism, Divisionism, Pointillism, Chromoluminism)—————————–[Georges Seurat, 1859-1891] —————-

——— |18861906, Symbolism| ——— |This late 19th Century Art Movement advocated the expression of an idea over the realistic description of the natural world.| —————————————————————-

——— |1890 – 1914, Art Nouveau|——–| This was an international style of fine art, architecture and applied art, but most particularly the decorative arts, known in different languages by different names. It began in Belgium, stimulated by the formation of Les Vingt, a wide ranging group of 20 artists, and quickly spread to France, and thence to the cultural centres of the world. One major objective of Art Nouveau was to break down the traditional distinction between fine arts (especially painting and sculpture) and applied arts.  It was a reaction against the academic art, eclecticism and historicism of 19th century architecture and decoration. It was often inspired by natural forms such as the sinuous curves of plants and flowers. Other characteristics of Art Nouveau were a sense of dynamism and movement, often given by asymmetry or whiplash lines, and the use of modern materials, particularly iron, glass, ceramics and later concrete, to create unusual forms and larger open spaces. Earlier, in Britain there had been a similar breakaway group, The Arts and Crafts Movement, whose influence eventually extended to the British Empire and America.|————–

——— |1893 – 1914, La Libre Esthétique | ——–|’The Free Aesthetics‘ was an Artistic society founded in 1893 in Brussels to continue the efforts of the artists’ group Les XX (Les Vingt) which had been dissolved earlier the same year. To reduce conflicts between artists being invited or excluded, artists were no longer admitted to the society: henceforth all exhibitors were to be invitees.|—————————————————————————————————–

——— |1897 – 1905, The Vienna Secession| ——– |This movement was closely aligned with Art Nouveau and was spearheaded by Austrian Artists and Architects including Gustav Klimt, Josef Hoffman, Koloman Moser and Otto Wagner.|———————————————————————————————-

——— |18842000, Modernism| ——— |The debate as to when Modernism in Art began will continue ad infinitum. The author has chosen 1884 as its beginning, the date of George Seurat’s introduction of Divisionism. Modernism is both a philosophical and an art movement which emanated from broad transformations in Western society during the late 19th Century and throughout the 20th Century.—————————————————————-The movement reflected a desire for the creation of new forms of art, philosophy, and social organization which reflected the newly emerging industrial world, including features such as urbanisation, new technologies, and war. Artists attempted to depart from traditional forms of art, which they considered outdated or obsolete. Modernists considered the poet Ezra Pound’s famous slogan, ‘Make It New!,’ a professional, almost a sacred obligation.—————————————————————————————————Modernist innovations included divisionist painting, cubism, abstract art, the stream of consciousness novel, montage cinema, atonal and twelve tone music. Modernism explicitly rejected the ideology of realism and made use of the works of the past by the employment of reprise, incorporation, rewriting, recapitulation, revision and parody. Modernism also rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists also rejected religious belief. A notable characteristic of modernism is self consciousness concerning artistic and social traditions, which often led to experimentation with form, along with the use of techniques that drew attention to the processes and materials used in creating works of art.| ——————————-

{——— |19702020, Postmodernism| ——— |Postmodernism is a departure from Modernism which rejects its basic assumptions.|—————}

———(Symbolism, Art Nouveau, Modern Art, Vienna Secession, Neoclassicism, Realism, Surrealism, Romanticism)———————————————————————————-[Gustav Klimt, 1862-1918] ———————————-

——— |19011980, Expressionism | ——–|This was a movement that developed in the early twentieth century, mainly in Germany, in reaction to the dehumanizing effect of industrialization and the growth of cities, and that one of the central means by which expressionism identifies itself as an avant-garde movement, and by which it marks its distance to traditions and the cultural institution as a whole is through its relationship to realism and the dominant conventions of representation. More explicitly, that the expressionists rejected the ideology of realism. By 1910 Expressionism was being described as the opposite of Impressionism. ————————————–Unfortunately Expressionism is notoriously difficult to define, in part because it overlaps with other major ‘isms’ of the modernist period: Futurism, Vorticism, Cubism, Surrealism and Dadaism. ——————————After World War II, figurative expressionism influenced a large number of artists and styles worldwide. However in America in particular, figurative Expressionists were increasingly marginalized by the development of abstract Expressionism centred in New York City.|————————————–

———(Symbolism, Expressionism)—–[Edvar Munch, 1863-1944] ——————

———(Post Impressionism, Impressionism, Art Nouveau, Realism, Modern Art)—————————–[Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1864-1901] ——————

———(Expressionism, Abstract Art)——-[Wassily Kandinsky, 1866-1944] —-

——— |19051908, Fauvism (Wild Beast Art!)| ——– Artists emphasised painterly qualities and strong colours over the representational or realistic values as depicted in Impressionism.|———————————————————-

———(Fauvism, Modernism, Post Impressionism)————————————————————————————————[Henri Matisse, 1869-1954] ——————

———(Post Impressionism)————–[Augustus John, 1878-1961] ——————

——— |19081930, Cubism | ——–  |This was an early-20th-century avante-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture. It also inspired inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture. It was a style of art which aimed to show many possible viewpoints of a person or an object, all simultaneously. It was eventually called Cubism because the items represented in the artworks looked like they were made out of cubes and other geometrical shapes, specifically cylinders, spheres and cones. ———————————————————————In 1905 Spaniard Pablo Picasso met Frenchman Georges Braque and together they collaborated on the creation of an unnamed revolutionary Art Movement, examples of which emerged c.1908-1909. ———————————– This was to be the only collaboration in Picasso’s 80-year artistic career. ——Inspired by the later works of Cézanne, as displayed in Parisian exhibitions held at the Salon d’Automne, in 1904, 1905, 1906, and poignantly, in 1907, one year afterCézanne’s death in 1906, they founded the new unnamed movement in 1908, (eventually named Cubism by Guillaume Apollinaire in 1911). ———————————————————————————————————-In 1907 Picasso had painted the groundbreaking work Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, which, with its fragmented and distorted representation of the human form, broke from previous European art. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon demonstrated the influence on Picasso of both African mask art and Paul Cézanne and is seen as a forerunner of the Cubist movement, founded by Picasso and the French painter Georges Braque in 1908. Les Demoiselles remained hidden from public view until 1916, after being bought by private collector. ————————————————————————- The initial phase of Cubism, from 1908 -1912, was retrospectively called Analytic Cubism. The repetition of analytic signs in Cubist’s work became more generalized, geometrically simplified, and flatter. This took what they were doing in the Analytic Cubism period to a new level because it discarded the idea of three dimensions in their work. In this period colors were very muted, and many earth tones dominated the paintings. ————–The final phase, retrospectively called Synthetic Cubism, was from 1912 – 1914, and was characterised by paintings with simple shapes, bright, bold colours, and little or no depth. Lively reds, greens, blues, and yellows gave great emphasis to this later work. It was also the birth of collage art in which real objects were incorporated into the paintings. —————————- Other artists that joined the new movement included Jean Metinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Jean Metzinger, Henri Le Fauconnier and Fernand Léger. ———————————————————————————————————Italian artist Gino Severini, based in Paris and Rome from 1906, knew most of the prominent members of the cubist movement, and absorbed cubism in both its analytic and synthetic forms first hand from its main proponents, before being a founding member of the Italian Futurism movement in 1911, which was closely related to Synthetic Cubism. In 1900 he had met the painter Umberto Boccioni. Together they had visited the studio of Giacomo Balla, where they were introduced to the technique of Divisionism painting with adjacent rather than mixed colors, and breaking the painted surface into a field of stippled dots and stripes. The ideas of Divisionism had a great influence on Severini’s early work and on Futurist painting from 1910 to 1911, much of which was closely aligned with Synthetic Cubism. During the vile War of 1914 – 1918 he produced some of the finest Futurist war art, notably his Italian Lancers at a Gallop (1915) and Armoured Train (1915). He became part of the Return to Order movement in the arts in the post-war era.|—————————————————

———(Symbolism, Modernism, Primitivism, Cubism, Return to Order, Neo-Classicism, Surrealism, Neo-Expressionism)———————————————————————————————-[Pablo Picasso, 1881-1973] ——————————–

|Born in the port city of Malaga on the Costa del Sol, Picasso was baptised a Catholic but became an Atheist. ——————————————————————-His father, Ruiz, was a professor of drawing, and he tutored his son from the age of 7 for a career in academic art. Picasso displayed prodigious talent and had his first exhibition at age 13, by which time his family had moved to Barcelona. Aged 16 he attended the top art school in Spain, Madrid’s Real Academia de Belles Artes de San Fernando, but disliked formal instruction and very quickly quit the Academy so he could experiment full-time with modern art styles. By the age of 19 he had produced hundreds of paintings, but was relatively unknown outside Barcelona. His career as a mature artist dates from 1894 when he was 13 years old. ————————————————–In 1900, aged 19, he left Spain temporarily for Paris. ————————————This proved to be an inspirational move! Paris was the very epicentre of European Art and was awash with aspiring Artists, galleries, Art Critics, Art Dealers and Art Investors. He had found the perfect environment to develop his talents. Significantly he was also in one of the most romantic cities in the world! —————————————————————————————-Returning to Paris in 1901 he was given an exhibition at a gallery on Paris’ rue Lafitte, a street known for its prestigious art galleries. Winning favorable reviews, he stayed on in Paris for the rest of the year and later returned to the city to settle permanently. —————————————————-His first notable period – The Blue Period – began shortly after his first Paris exhibition. In works such as The Old Guitarist (1903), Picasso painted in blue tones to evoke the melancholy world of the poor. The Blue Period was followed by The Rose Period, in which he often depicted circus scenes, and then by Picasso’s early work in sculpture. ———————————————-In 1905 Spaniard Pablo Picasso met Frenchman Georges Braque and together they collaborated on the creation of an unnamed revolutionary Art Movement. This was to be the only collaboration in Picasso’s 80-year artistic career. ———————————————————————————————————From 1904 there were a series of exhibitions of Paul Cézanne’s groundbreaking later period of Art, and these ignited a profound re-think of the direction that Picasso and his new friend Georges Braque were to take in Art. ———————————————————————————————————-A retrospective of Cézanne’s later paintings had been held at the 1904 Salon d’Automne; his current works were displayed in 1905 and 1906 at the same Salon. After his death in 1906, two commemorative retrospectives in 1907 followed. —————————————————————————————————–Cézanne found little recognition in his own lifetime, but was subsequently described by both Henri Matisse and Picasso as ‘the father of us all’. ————Cézanne believed that painting needed more structure and could be more analytical, a trait that he recognised in Old Master works but thought was not present in Impressionism. In particular, he was convinced that it was possible to create a more formal, abstract system of painting, using the geometric forms of the cuboid, sphere and cone. (The cylinder being being a member of the set of cones.) ———————————————————————–The visionary Cézanne remarked, “I point the way. Others will come after.” —While he never truly got to the point of making works simplified to this extreme, eventually Cubism and its offshoots, such as Futurism, Orphism, Suprematism and Constructivism would realise his creation in different ways. ——————————————————————————————————– In hindsight, after a wide-ranging series of experiments, circumstances, influences and conditions, rather than from one isolated static event or trajectory, the first ProtoCubist picture was produced by Picasso in 1907, but not exhibited for nine years. At the time of its first exhibition in 1916, the painting was deemed immoral. The work, painted in Picasso’s studio in the Bateau-Lavoire in Montmartre, Paris, was seen publicly for the first time at the Salon d’Antin in July 1916, at an exhibition organized by the poet André Salmon. It was at this exhibition that Salmon (who had previously titled the painting in 1912 Le bordel philosophique) renamed the work its current, less scandalous title, Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, instead of the title originally chosen by Picasso, Le Bordel d’Avignon. Picasso, who always referred to it as mon bordel (“my brothel”), or Le Bordel d’Avignon, never liked Salmon’s title. ————————————————————————————-It was an oil painting by Picasso’s collaborator, Georges Braque that marked the beginning of what was to be eventually termed Cubism. ———————–In 1908 Georges submitted a painting entitled The Houses at l’Estaque to the Salon d’Automne. This historic painting was eventually deemed to be the start of the initial phase of Cubism, retrospectively named Analytic Cubism. ————————————————————————————————–The art critic Louis Vauxcelles recounted how Henri Matisse told him at the time, “Braque has just sent in [to the 1908 Salon d’Automne] a painting made of little cubes”. ———————————————————————————-A total of six landscapes painted at L’Estaque signed Georges Braque were presented to the Jury of the Salon d’Automne in 1908: Guérin, Marquet, Rouault and Matisse rejected Braque’s entire submission. Guérin and Marquet elected to keep two in play. Braque withdrew the two in protest, placing the blame on Matisse. However Vauxcelles called Braque “a daring man who despises form, reducing everything, places and a figures and houses, to geometric schemas, to cubes”.————————————————Picasso’s equally significant Analytic Cubism work, Brick Factory at Tortosa (1909) has been described by a modern day art critic as “an experiment in how brutally you can reduce, simplify, solidify and abstract forms and still produce a picture that is not simply recognisable, but profoundly full of life.” ——————————————————————————Another highly significant early cubist painting was Albert Gleizes’ Portrait of Jacques Nayral (2011). Other artists supporting this revolutionary movement included Jean Metzinger, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, Fernand Léger and Juan Gris. ———————————————————————-Again in hindsight, this initial phase of cubism has been defined as Analytical Cubism (1908 – 1912). Having perfected this art form Picasso moved swiftly on to what was to be the final phase of cubism, Synthetic Cubism (1912 – 1914). The momentum of this movement was abruptly halted by the vile war of 1914 – 1918. (The author cannot bear to give this pathetic conflict any glorious or numerical name). ————————————–Synthetic cubism began when the artists started adding textures and patterns to their paintings, experimenting with collage using newspaper print and patterned paper. Analytical cubism was about breaking down an object (like a bottle) viewpoint-by-viewpoint, into a fragmentary image; whereas synthetic cubism was about flattening out the image and sweeping away the last traces of allusion to three-dimensional space. Picasso’s papier collés are a good example of synthetic cubism. ——————————————–Synthetic Cubism, like Fauvism before it, brushed aside chromophobia and embraced the use of vibrant colours, in sharp contrast to the very muted and earthy colours of Analytic Cubism. ——————————————————–Art critic Apollinaire in homage to the avant-gardists claimed that beauty was not eternal as the truth is being incessantly renewed.|

———(Fauvism, Cubism, Expressionism)———————————————————————————————-[Georges Braque, 1882-1963] ———————————

——— |1914, Anti-Art | ——————— |The Dada movement is generally considered to be the first anti-art movement. The term anti-art itself is said to have been coined by Dadaist Marcel Duchamp c.1914, and his readymades (such as an inverted urinal) have been cited as early examples of anti-art objects. Anti-Art is a loose term applied to concepts and attitudes that reject prior definitions of art and question art in general. Paradoxically, anti-art tends to conduct this questioning and rejection from the vantage point of art.|——————————————————————————

——— |19181930, Return to Order | ——————— |This is a European art movement that came about following the vile 1914 – 1918 War and characterized by a return to more traditional approaches to art-making – rejecting the extreme avant-garde tendencies of art in the years leading up to 1918.|——————————————————————————————————-

———(Cubism, Abstract Art, Abstraction-Création)————————————————————————————[Albert Gleise, 1881-1953] ——————————–

———(Divisionism, Cubism, Futurism, Return to Order, Neo-Classicism, Novecento Italiano)————–[Gino Severini, 1883-1966] ——————

———(Neo-Impressionism, Divisionism, Fauvism, Cubism)————————————————————————[Jean Metzinger, 1883-1956] —————————–

———(Cubism, Expressionism)———-[Marc Chagall, 1887-1985] ——————-

———(Cubism, Dada, Conceptual Art, Anti-Art)———-[Marcel Duchamp, 1887-1968] —————————————————————————————————

———(Naïve Art)———-[L. S. Lowry, 1887-1976] ——————————————–

———(Expressionism)———-[Egon Schiele, 1890-1918] ——-| Protégé of Gustav Klimt|———————————————————————————————–

———(Surrealism, Dada, Experimental)———-[Joan Miro, 1893-1983] ———–

———(Abstract Expressionism, Colour Field)——-[Mark Rothco, 1903-1970] —

———(Surrealism, Expressionism, Post Impressionism)————————————————————[Salvador Dali, 1904-1989] ——————-

———(Cubism, Surrealism, Expressionism)——-[Francis Bacon, 1909-1992] —

——— |1911 – 1914, Section d’Or | —————–{The Golden Section/The Golden Rectangle/The Divine Ratio} ————————————————————-

———|The impact of Cézanne, Picasso and Braque|———————————The work of Picasso, which comprises more than 50,000 paintings, drawings, engravings, sculptures, and ceramics produced over 80 years, may be described in a series of overlapping periods. His first notable period–the “blue period”—began shortly after his initial Paris exhibit. In works such as The Old Guitarist (1903), Picasso painted in blue tones to evoke the melancholy world of the poor. The blue period was followed by the “rose period,” in which he often depicted circus scenes, and then by Picasso’s early work in sculpture. —————————————————————–

In 1907, Picasso painted the groundbreaking work Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, which, with its fragmented and distorted representation of the human form, broke from previous European art. Les Demoiselles d’Avignon demonstrated the influence on Picasso of both African mask art and Paul Cezanne and is seen as a forerunner of the Cubist movement, founded by Picasso and the French painter Georges Braque in 1909.

In Cubism, which is divided into two phases, analytical and synthetic, Picasso and Braque established the modern principle that artwork need not represent reality to have artistic value. Major Cubist works by Picasso included his costumes and sets for Sergey Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes (1917) and The Three Musicians (1921). Picasso and Braque’s Cubist experiments also resulted in the invention of several new artistic techniques, including collage.

After Cubism, Picasso explored classical and Mediterranean themes, and images of violence and anguish increasingly appeared in his work. In 1937, this trend culminated in the masterpiece Guernica, a monumental work that evoked the horror and suffering endured by the Basque town of Guernica when it was destroyed by German war planes during the Spanish  Civil War. Picasso remained in Paris during the Nazi occupation but was fervently opposed to fascism and after the war joined the French Communist Party.

Picasso’s work after the necessary & heroic World War of 1939-1945 is less studied than his earlier creations, but he continued to work feverishly and enjoyed commercial and critical success. He produced fantastical works, experimented with ceramics, and painted variations on the works of other masters in the history of art. Known for his intense gaze and domineering personality, he had a series of intense and overlapping love affairs in his lifetime. He continued to produce art with undiminished force until his death in 1973 at the age of 91.

Cubism was a revolutionary new approach to representing reality invented in around 1907–08 by artists Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. They brought different views of subjects (usually objects or figures) together in the same picture, resulting in paintings that appear fragmented and abstracted. —————————————————————————————————

One primary influence that led to Cubism was the representation of  three dimensional form in the late works of Paul Cézanne. A retrospective of Cézanne’s paintings was held at the Salone d’Automne of 1904, his current works were also displayed in both 1905 and 1906 at the Salon d’Automne, and were followed by two commemorative retrospectives after his death in 1907. ———————————————————————————————————

In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form — instead of depicting objects from a single viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. ————————————————————————

Cézanne found little recognition in his own lifetime, but was subsequently described by both Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso as “the father of us all”. His paintings held almost no value when he created them, yet in 2011 one work from his Card Players series sold for around $274m, making it the most expensive painting ever sold. ————————————————————

“I point the way. Others will come after.” said Paul Cézanne. Why? In many respects, Cézanne was the first Western artist to explore the reduction of Western painting and in doing so led the way towards what we know today as abstract painting. —————————————————————

Influenced by Impressionism, Cézanne believed painting needed more structure and could be more analytical, which he saw in Old Master works but thought was not present in Impressionism. In particular, he believed the world could be treated through a more formal, abstract system of three forms: the cube, the sphere and the cone. (While he never truly got to the point of making works simplified to this extreme, eventually Cubism and its offshoots, such as Futurism, Orphism, Suprematism and Constructivism, would in different ways.)

Inspired by Cézanne, Albert Gleizes and Jean Metzinger  wrote:

Cézanne is one of the greatest of those who changed the course of art history . . . From him we have learned that to alter the coloring of an object is to alter its structure. His work proves without doubt that painting is not—or not any longer—the art of imitating an object by lines and colors, but of giving plastic [solid, but alterable] form to our nature. Du “Cubisme“, 1912)

Cézanne’s explorations of geometric simplification and optical phenomena inspired Picasso, Braque, Metzinger, Gleizes, Gris and others to experiment with ever more complex views of the same subject and eventually to the fracturing of form. Cézanne thus sparked one of the most revolutionary areas of artistic enquiry of the 20th century, one which was to affect profoundly the development of modern art. Picasso referred to Cézanne as “the father of us all” and claimed him as “my one and only master!” Other painters such as Edgar Degas, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Paul Gauguin, Kasimir Malevich, Georges Rouault, Paul Klee and Henri Matisse acknowledged Cézanne’s genius.

Georges Braque’s Houses at L’Estaque, the first work to be called cubist.

———(Cubism, Surrealism)————–[Pablo Picasso, 1881-1973] ————–

———(Cubism, Expressionism)————–[Mark Chagall, 1887-1985] ————–

———(Cubism, Dada, Conceptual Art)—–[Marcel Duchamp, 1887-1968] ——-

———(Naïve Art)—————————–[L. S. Lowry, 1887-1976] ————————

———(Surrealism, Dada, Experimental Art)—–[Joan Miro, 1893-1983] ———-

———(Cubism, Dada, Surrealism, Expressionism, Post Impressionism)————————————————————[Salvadore Dali, 1904-1989] ———————–

——— |19091914, Futurism| ——– This was an avant-garde movement founded in Milan in 1909 by the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, who launched the movement in his Manifesto of Futurism which he published for the first time on 5 February 1909 in La gazzetta dell’Emilia, an article which was then reproduced in the French daily newspaper Le Figaro on Saturday 20 February 1909. He was soon joined by the painters Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Giacomo Ball and Gino Severini, together with the composer Luigi Russolo. —————————————————————– Marinetti expressed a passionate loathing of everything old, especially political and artistic tradition. “We want no part of it, the past”, he wrote, “we the young and strong Futurists!” ———————————————————- The Futurists admired speed, technology, youth, violence, the car, the airplane and the industrial city: all that represented the technological triumph of humanity over nature, and they were passionate nationalists. They repudiated the cult of the past and all imitation, praised originality, “however daring, however violent”, bore proudly “the smear of madness”, dismissed art critics as useless, rebelled against harmony and good taste, and swept away all the themes and subjects of all previous art, and gloried in science. —————————————————————————————————Publishing manifestos was a feature of Futurism, and the Futurists (usually led or prompted by Marinetti) wrote them on many topics, including painting, architecture, music, literature, photography, religion, women, fashion and cuisine. ———————————————————————————–The Futurist painters were slow to develop a distinctive style and subject matter. In 1910 and 1911 they used the techniques of Divisionism, breaking light and colour down into a field of stippled dots and stripes, which had been adopted from Divisionism, for example in Art by Giovanni Segantini. Later, Severini, who lived in Paris, attributed their backwardness in style and method at this time to their distance from Paris, the centre of avant-garde art. Severini was the first to come into contact with Cubism and following a visit to Paris in 1911 the Futurist painters adopted the methods of the Cubists. Cubism offered them a means of analysing energy in paintings and expressing dynamism. ———————————————————–Italian Futurism came to an end with the outbreak of war in 1914.|————-

——— |19141924, Dada; Dadaism| ——– This was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century, initially at the beginning of WW1, with New York Dada beginning circa 1915, and early centres in Zürich, Switzerland, at the Cabaret Voltaire circa 1916, leading to Dada flourishing in Paris in 1920. Developed in reaction to World War I, the Dada movement consisted of artists who rejected the logic, reason and aestheticism of modern capitalist society, instead expressing nonsense, irrationality and anti-bourgeois protest in their works. Dadaist artists expressed their discontent toward violence, war, and nationalism, and maintained political affinities with the radical far-left. ———————————Many Dadaists believed that the ‘reason’ and ‘logic’ of bourgeois capitalist society had led people into war. They expressed their rejection of that ideology in artistic expression that appeared to reject logic and embrace chaos and irrationality. For example, George Grosz later recalled that his Dadaist art was intended as a protest “against this world of mutual destruction.” ———————————————————————————————-Like Zürich, New York City was a refuge for writers and artists from the First World War. Soon after arriving from France in 1915, Marcel Duchamp and Francis Picabia met American artist Man Ray. By 1916 the three of them had become the center of radical anti-art activities in the United States. American Beatrice Wood, who had been studying in France, soon joined them, along with Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven. Arthur Cravan, fleeing conscription in France, was also in New York for a time. Much of their activity centered in Alfred Stieglitz’s gallery, 291, and the home of Walter and Louise Arensberg. —————————————————————————–The New Yorkers, though not particularly organized, called their activities Dada, but they did not issue manifestos. They issued challenges to art and culture through publications such as The Blind Man, Rongwrong, and New York Dada, in which they criticized the traditionalist basis for museum art. New York Dada lacked the disillusionment of European Dada and was instead driven by a sense of irony and humor, as typified by Marsden Hartley’s essay on The Importance of Being Dada. ———————There is no consensus on the origin of the movement’s name; a common story is that the German artist Richard Huelsenbeck slid a paper knife (letter-opener) at random into a dictionary, where it landed on “dada”, a colloquial French term for a hobby horse, whereas Jean Arp wrote that Tristan Tzara invented the word at 6 pm on 6 February 1916, in the Café de la Terrasse in Zurich. Others note that it suggests the first words of a child, evoking a childishness and absurdity that appealed to the group. Still others speculate that the word might have been chosen to evoke a similar meaning (or no meaning at all) in any language, reflecting the movement’s internationalism.|————————————————————————————— While broadly based, the movement was unstable. By 1924 in Paris, Dada was melding into Surrealism, and artists had gone on to other ideas and movements, including Surrealism, Social Realism and other forms of Modernism. Some theorists argue that Dada was actually the beginning of Postmodern Art —————————————————————————————–|

——— |1917/1924 – 1950‘s, Surrealism| ——–|The word surrealism was first coined in March 1917 by Guillaume Apollinaire in a letter to Paul Dermée. He used a derivative that same month, surrealistic, to describe Ballets Russes Parade in his program notes. ————————————————-By October 1924 two rival Surrealist groups had formed and each had published a Surrealist Manifesto. Both groups claimed to be the successors of a revolution launched by Appolinaire. ————————————————- The group led by André Breton eventually triumphed over Yvan Goll’s group, and established the Bureau of Surrealist Research before the end of 1924. ——————————————————————————————————-Sigmund Freud’s work with free association, dream analysis, and the unconscious was of utmost importance to the Surrealists in developing methods to liberate imagination. They embraced idiosyncrasy, while rejecting the idea of an underlying madness. As Dalí later proclaimed, “There is only one difference between a madman and me. I am not mad.”|

——— |1948 – 1951, CoBrA| ——–|This international avant garde movement of artists was formed on 8 November 1948 in the Café Notre-Dame, Paris, following the privations experienced during the heroic and righteous 1939-1945 World War. An acronym of Copenhagen, Brussels, Amsterdam movement of avant garde

 World War II, the Netherlands had been disconnected from the art world beyond its borders. COBRA was formed shortly thereafter. This international movement of artists who worked experimentally evolved from the criticisms of Western society and a common desire to break away from existing art movements, including “detested” naturalism and “sterile” abstraction. Experimentation was the symbol of an unfettered freedom, which, according to Constant, was ultimately embodied by children and the expressions of children.[1] COBRA was formed by Karel AppelConstantCorneilleChristian DotremontAsger Jorn, and Joseph Noiret on 8 November 1948 in the Café Notre-Dame, Paris,[2] with the signing of a manifesto, “La cause était entendue” (“The Case Was Settled”),[3] drawn up by Dotremont.[4] Formed with a unifying doctrine of complete freedom of colour and form, as well as antipathy towards Surrealism, the artists also shared an interest in Marxism as well as modernism.

Their working method was based on spontaneity and experiment, and they drew their inspiration in particular from children’s drawings, from primitive art forms and from the work of Paul Klee and Joan Miró.[2]

———(Abstract Expressionism)———[(Paul) Jackson Pollock, 1912-1956] ——

———(Pop Art, Abstract Art, Contemporary Art, Modern Art, Cubism, Expressionism, Abstract Expressionism)——[Roy Lichtenstein, 1923-1997] —

———(Naïve Art, Pop Art, Abstract Expressionism, Contemporary Art, Modern Art)—————————–[Andy Warhol, 1928-1987] —————————

———(Calligraphy, Graffiti, Romantic Symbolism)———————————————————————————[Cy Twombly, 1928 – 2011] ————————————

———(Contemporary Art, Feminist Art, Pop Art, Minimalism)—————————————————————[Yayoi Kusama, 1929 – ] —————————————-

———(Abstract Expressionism, Neo Dada, Modern Art, Pop Art)————————————————————[Jasper Johns, 1930 – ] ——————————————-

———(Pop Art, Cubism, Modern Art)————[David Hockney, 1937] ————–

———(Contemporary Art, Neo Expressionism)—–[Georg Baselitz, 1938 – ] —-

———(Pop Art, Street Art, Neo-Expressionism, Contemporary Art)——————————————————–[Keith Haring, 1958 – 1990] ———————————–

———(Pop Art, Street Art, Neo-Expressionism, Contemporary Art)——————————————————–[Keith Haring, 1958 – 1990] ———————————–

———(Neo-Expressionism)—(Style: Graffiti, Street Art, Primitivism)——————————————————[Jean-Michel Basquiat, 1960 – 1988 ] ———————

———(Pop Art, Contemporary Art)————[Jeff Koons, 1955 – ] ———————-

———(Street Art )————[Banksy, 1974 – ] —————————————————-

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